Transportation Coordination Resources

Coordinated transportation services are achieved when multiple entities work together in delivering one or more components of a transportation service so they can increase their capacity to provide trips. Coordination activities can range from sharing passenger trips and vehicles to collaborating on facilities, training, purchasing, or maintenance. Fully coordinated services may evolve into an integrated brokerage in which one entity schedules and collects payment for trips performed by several providers or into full consolidation of several transportation services under one agency.

Federal Coordination Policy and Reports

2023 Strategic Plan of the Federal Coordinating Council on Access and Mobility (CCAM) (2022). Since the CCAM’s establishment two decades ago, the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) and its CCAM partners have continued to advance equitable human services transportation coordination for all communities. This 2023–2026 CCAM Strategic Plan  furthers those efforts by supporting national, regional, State, and local strategies to ensure communities that are challenged in accessing vital services receive the assistance they need. The Plan starts by identifying the CCAM mission: “The CCAM collaborates to improve transportation access for all people.” The goals in the Plan set forth a framework for the CCAM to adapt and evolve to generate change and innovation in transportation systems. Further, the Plan prioritizes expanding safe access to transportation systems, as well as providing affordable and reliable mobility options. Improving safe access to public transportation increases quality of life for millions of Americans.

Federal Fund Braiding Guide (Coordinating Council on Access and Mobility, 2020). This guide defines Federal fund braiding for local match and program eligibility to enable Federal agencies and Federal grant recipients to more effectively manage Federal funds and coordinate human service transportation.


Transportation Disadvantaged Populations: Nonemergency Medical Transportation Not Well-Coordinated, and Additional Federal Leadership Needed (Government Accountability Office, 2014). An analysis of coordination among the federal programs that fund NEMT.

Transportation for Older Adults: Measuring Results Could Help Determine If Coordination Efforts Improve Mobility (Government Accountability Office, 2014). Reviews access to transportation services for older adults, including federally funded, state and local programs.

Transportation-Disadvantaged Populations: Federal Coordination Efforts Could Be Further Strengthened (Government Accountability Office, 2012). Examines 1) federal programs that may fund transportation services for the transportation disadvantaged; 2) federal coordination efforts undertaken since 2003, and 3) coordination at the state and local levels.

Information Letter on Human Services Transportation Coordination (Department of Veterans Affairs, 2007). Provides Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers with guidance in implementing strategies in response to Executive Order 13330, “Human Transportation Services Coordination.”

Policy Statement on Coordinated Human Service Transportation Planning (Coordinating Council on Access and Mobility, 2006).

Policy Statement on Vehicle Resource Sharing (Coordinating Council on Access and Mobility Vehicle, 2006).

Executive Order 13330: Human Service Transportation Coordination (White House, 2004)


Effective Coordination Strategies: Mobility Ohio (2023) Mobility Ohio is an Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT)-led collaboration between seven Ohio state agencies that fund community and human service transportation (HST). In Ohio, HST is currently provided in a fragmented and inefficient manner. Several state agencies invest at least $500 million annually to transport their clients and customers to jobs, medical care and other destinations. These journeys make it possible for their clients to lead meaningful, productive lives. However, each agency has developed its own programs, policies, and procedures for transportation independently from other agencies. At the same time, people often don’t have a way to get to jobs, the grocery, and other destinations. Mobility Ohio is consolidating these policies and breaking down silos to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of HST. A group of ongoing pilot initiatives represents the culmination of more than seven years of collaboration between ODOT and multiple state-level human service agencies on reforming HST for improved safety, quality, and efficiency through coordination. Seven participating agencies form the Mobility Ohio Committee, including ODOT; the Departments of Aging, Developmental Disabilities, Health, Job and Family Services, and Medicaid; and Opportunities for Ohioans with Disabilities.

Writing a Coordinated Public Transit Human Services Transportation Plan (2021). NCMM, National Rural Transportation Assistance Program (NRTAP), and National Aging and Disability Transportation Center (NADTC) collaborated to produce an update to this report first published in 2006. The technical brief summarizes the key steps in developing a Human Services Transportation (HST) Plan. You can download the Microsoft Word version here.

Reference Manual for Planning and Design of a Travel Management Coordination Center (TMCC) (Federal Transit Administration, 2018). This manual provides a reference for planning and designing a Transportation Management Coordination Center using intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and other technologies to enhance the coordination of mobility services for the transportation-disadvantaged. The manual is intended to facilitate and encourage local efforts to pursue technology for this purpose. You can also view the report summary here.

Integrated Mobility Implementation Toolbox (Canadian Urban Transit Association, 2017). Explore strategies for integrating mobility options in a way that makes it easier for customers to reach their destinations.

Promising Practices in Transportation Coordination: Enabled by Technology and Innovative Design (National Center for Mobility Management, 2014).  Profiles service coordination through the use of technology; part of the Promising Practices in Mobility Management series.

Developing Human Service Transportation Coordinated Plans (National Center for Mobility Management, 2014). Profiles five communities that have developed coordinated human service transportation planspart of the Promising Practices in Mobility Management series.

Including People with Disabilities in a Human Service Coordination Plan (Easter Seals Project Action, 2013). Provides ideas and suggestions for increased involvement by people with disabilities in communities' coordination efforts toward accessible transportation.

Regional Human Service Transportation Coordinating Councils: Synthesis, Case Studies, and Directory (National Conference of State Legislatures, 2012). Assesses how well statewide coordinating councils work to improve transportation access, provides a 50-state snapshot of where both state and regional councils now exist, explores how regional coordinating councils are complementary to state efforts, and provide case studies of regional councils in five states.

Sharing the Costs of Human Services. Volume 1: The Transportation Services Cost Sharing Toolkit (TCRP Report 144, Transit Cooperative Research Program, 2011). Looks at cost and service data accounting methods that lead to capturing fully allocated costs and performance measures for providing human service transportation. The toolkit provides detailed information on issues and potential solutions for identifying and sharing the cost of providing transportation services for access to community-based human services programs.

Vehicle Sharing Among Human Service Providers in Minnesota: Steps to Address Barriers (Minnesota Council on Transportation Access and Hubert H. Humphrey School of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 2013). Discusses barriers to vehicle sharing among human services transportation providers and proposes solutions to overcoming those barriers. Although Minnesota based, recommendations can be extrapolated to any state.

Handbook for Creating Local Transportation Coordinating Councils in Colorado (Colorado DOT, 2008). Handbook to assist Colorado communities in coordinating transportation resources and establishing local or regional coordinating councils; most of the information is applicable to communities in any state.

Economic Benefits of Coordinating Human Service Transportation and Transit Services (TCRP Report 91, Transit Cooperative Research Program, 2003). This report presents general coordination concepts, strategies for increasing coordination, and the benefits and industry-wide impacts of coordination.



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